We study how the use of online learning systems stimulates cognitive activities, by conducting an experiment with the use of eye tracking technology to monitor eye fixations of 60 final year students engaging in online interactive tutorials at the start of their Final Year Project module. Our findings show that the students' learning behaviours fall into three different types of eye fixation patterns, and the data corresponding to the different types of learners relates to the performance of the students in other related academic modules. We conclude that this method of studying eye fixation patterns can identify different types of learners with respect to their cognitive capability and academic potential, and also allow educators to understand how their instructional design and online learning environment can stimulate higher-order cognitive activities.
Many pedagogical models in the field of learning analytics are implicit and do not overtly direct learner behavior. While this allows flexibility of use, this could also result in misaligned practice, and there are calls for more explicit pedagogical models in learning analytics. This paper presents an explicit pedagogical model, the Team and Self Diagnostic Learning (TSDL) framework, in the context of collaborative inquiry tasks. Key informing theories include experiential learning, collaborative learning, and the learning analytics process model. The framework was trialed through a teamwork competency awareness program for 14 year old students. A total of 272 students participated in the program. This paper foregrounds students' and teachers' evaluative accounts of the program. Findings reveal positive perceptions of the stages of the TSDL framework, despite identified challenges, which points to its potential usefulness for teaching and learning. The TSDL framework aims to provide theoretical clarity of the learning process, and foster alignment between learning analytics and the learning design. The current work provides trial outcomes of a teamwork competency awareness program that used dispositional analytics, and further efforts are underway to develop the discourse layer of the analytic engine. Future work will also be dedicated to application and refinement of the framework for other contexts and participants, both learners and teachers alike.
The affordances of learning analytics (LA) are being increasingly harnessed to enhance 21st century (21C) pedagogy and learning. Relatively rare, however, are use cases and empirically based understandings of students' actual experiences with LA tools and environments aimed at fostering 21C literacies, especially in secondary schooling and Asian education contexts. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by presenting 1) a first iteration design of a computer-supported collaborative critical reading and LA environment and its 16-week implementation in a Singapore high school; and 2) foregrounding students' quantitative and qualitative accounts of the benefits and problematics associated with this learning innovation. We focus the analytic lens on the LA dashboard components that provided visualizations of students' reading achievement, 21C learning dispositions, critical literacy competencies and social learning network positioning within the class. The paper aims to provide insights into the potentialities, paradoxes and pathways forward for designing LA that take into consideration the voices of learners as critical stakeholders.